The 19th century arrived with France under the dictatorship of Napoleon. The American and French revolutions led to freedom and equality and the theories of the Enlightenment became realities of life, engendering powerful emotions and actions. Napoleon commissioned many works of art and many artists flourished. After Napoleon's fall, the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) redesigned the map of Europe and restored the balance of power.
The century was colored by romanticism, with its subjectivity, its emphasis on expression of personal feelings and emotions, its interest in nature and in the spiritual and supernatural. Industrialism and nationalism were on the rise, as was urbanization. Great factories appeared throughout Europe, and wealthy industrial merchants sought to dominate politics. The formation of the nations of Italy and Germany occurred. Romanticism and Impressionism are the art styles found in the 19th century.